Shi, W., Theelen, M., Gevaerts, V., Illiberi, A., Barreau, N., Butterling, M., Schut, H., Egger, W., Dickmann, M., Hugenschmidt, C., Zeman, M., Bruck, E. & Eijt, S. W. H. (2018) Positron Annihilation Studies on the Damp Heat Degradation of ZnO:Al Transparent Conductive Oxide Layers for CIGS Solar Cells. IEEE J. Photovolt. 8 1847–1851.
Added by: Richard Baschera (2018-12-20 08:24:17) Last edited by: Richard Baschera (2018-12-20 08:25:55)
|Type de référence: Article
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 2156-3381
Clé BibTeX: Shi2018a
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|Catégories: INTERNATIONAL, MIOPS
Mots-clés: and back contacts, beam, buffer layers, CIGS and CdTe thin film solar cells, Degradation, films, Grain boundaries, positrons, Stability, transparent conductors, ZnO:Al
Créateurs: Barreau, Bruck, Butterling, Dickmann, Egger, Eijt, Gevaerts, Hugenschmidt, Illiberi, Schut, Shi, Theelen, Zeman
Collection: IEEE J. Photovolt.
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Positron annihilation depth-profiling is used as an innovative tool to monitor the evolution of vacancy defects in two series of ZnO:Al transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells under accelerated degradation at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity. The first series of ZnO:Al layers are deposited directly on flat glass substrates, leading to low densities of (extended) grain boundaries in the ZnO:Al. These ZnO:Al layers only show an increase in open volume upon degradation in the near-surface range. The second series of ZnO:Al layers are deposited on the more corrugated surface of CdS/CIGS/Mo solar cells, and show, on the other hand, a pronounced formation of open volume throughout the layer. Its depth-dependence is consistent with in-diffusion of molecules such as H2O and CO2 into the ZnO:Al layer via the grain boundaries, as primary driver for the degradation. The detected time-dependence of the growth of open volume at the grain boundaries in the ZnO:Al TCO layer matches the time scale of the observed reduction in solar cell efficiency and series resistance, suggesting that the generated open volume induces a significant barrier against charge carrier transport.