Hainschwang, T., Karampelas, S., Fritsch, E. & Notari, F. (2013) Luminescence spectroscopy and microscopy applied to study gem materials: a case study of C centre containing diamonds. Mineral. Petrol. 107 393–413.
Added by: Laurent Cournède (2016-03-10 21:23:30)
|Type de référence: Article
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 0930-0708
Clé BibTeX: Hainschwang2013a
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Mots-clés: color, fluorescence cage, identification, iia diamonds, Nickel, optical-centers, photoluminescence, pinctada-margaritifera, saltwater cultured pearls, Vacancy
Créateurs: Fritsch, Hainschwang, Karampelas, Notari
Collection: Mineral. Petrol.
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The methods of luminescence spectroscopy and microscopy are widely used for the analysis of gem materials. This paper gives an overview of the most important applications of the analysis of laser and UV excited luminescence by spectroscopy and visually by microscopy with emphasis on diamond, and specifically natural type Ib diamond, little studied so far. Luminescence based techniques are paramount to the gemmological analysis of diamond, in order to determine whether it is natural, treated or synthetic. The great sensitivity of luminescence helps detect some emitting centres that are undetectable by any other analytical method. Hence, especially for diamond, luminescence is an enabling technology, as illustrated by its pioneering use of imagery for the separation of natural and synthetic diamond, and of spectroscopy for the detection of High Pressure-High Temperature treatment. For all other gemstones the applications are at the moment less numerous, but nevertheless they remain highly important. They provide quickly information on the identification of a gem material, and its treatment. Besides the study of broad band emissions caused by various colour centres, the typical PL-causing trace elements (amongst others) are chromium, manganese, uranium and rare earth elements. In pearls the study of broad band luminescence can be useful, and particularly the study of pink to red porphyrin luminescence in pearls from certain species such as Pinctada and Pteria and others can help identify the pearl-producing mollusc, or if a pearl has been dyed or not. Type Ib diamonds are representative of the importance and complexity of the analysis of luminescence by microscopy and spectroscopy. They show a wide range of sometimes very complex emissions that result in luminescence colours from green to yellow to orange or red. These emissions show generally very inhomogeneous distribution. They are caused by a range of defects, however only a few of them are well characterized.
Added by: Laurent Cournède