Scardamaglia, M., Aleman, B., Amati, M., Ewels, C., Pochet, P., Reckinger, N., Colomer, J. .-F., Skaltsas, T., Tagmatarchis, N., Snyders, R., Gregoratti, L. & Bittencourt, C. (2014) Nitrogen implantation of suspended graphene flakes: Annealing effects and selectivity of sp(2) nitrogen species. Carbon, 73 371–381.
Added by: Laurent Cournède (2016-03-10 21:01:55)
|Type de référence: Article
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 0008-6223
Clé BibTeX: Scardamaglia2014a
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Mots-clés: doped graphene, electronic-structure, field, functionalities, growth, identification, monolayer graphene, oxygen reduction reaction, spectroscopy, walled carbon nanotubes
Créateurs: Aleman, Amati, Bittencourt, Colomer, Ewels, Gregoratti, Pochet, Reckinger, Scardamaglia, Skaltsas, Snyders, Tagmatarchis
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Nitrogen inclusion in both chemical vapour deposition and exfoliated few-layer graphene flakes was performed by nitrogen ion implantation in ultra-high vacuum. Inclusion of up to 20 at.\% nitrogen can be reached through this clean technique with absence of oxygen species in the final product, while maintaining a largely sp(2)-carbon network. The nitrogen inclusion was observed by scanning X-ray photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) with energy resolution of 0.2 eV and spatial resolution of 10 nm. SPEM can be used to follow the evolution of nitrogen species: pyridinic, graphitic, and pyrrolic, at different doping stages and annealing temperatures. Variations in the ratio between sp2 nitrogen species was observed for increasing treatment time; annealing results in quenching of the sp(3) component, suggesting the graphitic nitrogen as the most therml stable species. The occurrence of graphitic species together with the absence of pyrrolic is indicative of N-incorporation.into a hexagonal graphene-based lattice. Ion irradiation followed by annealing performed in a controlled way is a promising strategy to fine control the nature of the nitrogen species grafted to the graphene while focusing on selected applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Added by: Laurent Cournède