Theelen, M., Hans, V., Barreau, N., Steijvers, H., Vroon, Z. & Zeman, M. (2015) The impact of alkali elements on the degradation of CIGS solar cells. Prog. Photovoltaics, 23 537–545.
Added by: Laurent Cournède (2016-03-10 18:36:41)
|Type de référence: Article
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 1062-7995
Clé BibTeX: Theelen2015a
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Mots-clés: CIGS solar cells, damp heat, diffusion, illumination, migration, potassium, reliability, Sodium, thin-film
Créateurs: Barreau, Hans, Steijvers, Theelen, Vroon, Zeman
Collection: Prog. Photovoltaics
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Unencapsulated CIGS solar cells with high and low contents of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were simultaneously exposed to damp heat and illumination. The solar cells with a high alkali (Na, K) content exhibited higher initial conversion efficiencies, but degraded severely within 100h, while the alkali poor samples kept relatively stable performance under damp heat and illumination. The degradation of the samples with a high alkali content resulted in the formation of sodium rich spots on the top ZnO:Al surface of the samples. This is likely caused by light-induced Na+ migration via the grain boundaries in the absorber to the depletion region, where the Na+ accumulated. This allowed subsequent Na+ transport through the depletion region due to the lowering of the internal electric field caused both by the Na+ accumulation and illumination. The migration resulted in the formation of shunt paths, which reduced the shunt resistance and open circuit voltage. Furthermore, ingression of water into the ZnO:Al is expected to be responsible for a slow but steady increase in series resistance for both high and low alkali solar cells. Additionally, sodium migration led to a severe increase of the series resistance in case of alkali rich samples. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd.
Added by: Laurent Cournède