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Shi, W., Theelen, M., Illiberi, A., Barreau, N., van der Sar, S. J., Butterling, M., Schut, H., Egger, W., Dickmann, M., Hugenschmidt, C., Zeman, M., Bruck, E. & Eijt, S. W. H. (2018) Evolution and role of vacancy clusters at grain boundaries of ZnO:Al during accelerated degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 solar cells revealed by positron annihilation. Physical Review Materials, 2 105403. 
Added by: Richard Baschera (2018-12-19 10:00:47)   Last edited by: Richard Baschera (2018-12-19 10:02:59)
Type de référence: Article
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.105403
Clé BibTeX: Shi2018
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Créateurs: Barreau, Bruck, Butterling, Dickmann, Egger, Eijt, Hugenschmidt, Illiberi, van der Sar, Schut, Shi, Theelen, Zeman
Collection: Physical Review Materials
Consultations : 5/285
Indice de consultation : 2%
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Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening positron annihilation spectroscopy (DB-PAS) depth profiling demonstrate pronounced growth of vacancy clusters at the grain boundaries of as-deposited Al-doped ZnO films deposited as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) solar cells upon accelerated degradation at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity. Quantitative fractions of positrons trapped either in the vacancy clusters at the grain boundaries or in Zn monovacancies inside the grains of ZnO:Al were obtained by detailed analysis of the PALS data using a positron trapping model. The time and depth dependence of the positron Doppler depth profiles can be accurately described using a planar diffusion model, with an extracted diffusion coefficient of 35 nm(2)/hour characteristic for in-diffusion of molecules such as H2O and CO2 into ZnO:Al TCO films via the grain boundaries, where they react with the ZnO:Al. This leads to increased open volume at the grain boundaries that imposes additional transport barriers and may lead to charge carrier trapping and nonradiative recombination. Simultaneously, a pronounced increase in series resistance and a strong reduction in efficiency of the ZnO:Al capped CIGS solar cells is observed on a remarkably similar timescale. This strongly indicates that these atomic-scale processes of molecular in-diffusion and creation of open volume at the grain boundaries play a key role in the degradation of the solar cells.
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