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Guilminot, E., Lemoine, G., Pele, C., Poisson, L., Surbled, M., Louvet, I., Mevellec, J.-Y. & Remy, L. (2014) Re-treatment of whale bones - How to extract degraded fats from weakened bones? J. Cult. Herit. 15 128–135. 
Added by: Florent Boucher (2016-04-29 09:26:44)
Type de référence: Article
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2013.03.008
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 1296-2074
Clé BibTeX: Guilminot2014
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Catégories: IMN
Mots-clés: acid-composition, balaenoptera-physalus, blubber, Conservation, Degreasing treatments, Fatty bones, Skeleton, Whale
Créateurs: Guilminot, Lemoine, Louvet, Mevellec, Pele, Poisson, Remy, Surbled
Collection: J. Cult. Herit.
Consultations : 3/425
Indice de consultation : 2%
Indice de popularité : 0.5%
Résumé     
Many whale (baleen whale or toothed whale) skeletons still contain residual lipids even after an initial osteological preparation. This paper examines the different possibilities of re-treatment. Before a conservation intervention, it was necessary to determine the materials of which bones are made up. The samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Different compounds were identified: a mineral part (apatite), an organic part (collagen) and lipids. Chromatography analysis yielded a detailed composition of the lipids. It was in fact degraded fat with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. To remove these lipids, several techniques were identified and tested: enzymatic treatments, supercritical CO2, and green or organic solvents. Esterification catalyzed by lipases could be suitable for a degreasing treatment since the solubility of esters is higher than that of the corresponding fatty acids. The enzymatic treatment acted only on the surface and did not appear to be very efficient. The use of supercritical CO2 was even less effective. Some green solvents can partially extract lipids but prove difficult to eliminate after treatment. The best results for degreasing were achieved using organic solvents. Different solutions were evaluated at hot or ambient temperature and in simple immersion or with agitation (Soxhlet or pulsed pressure): hexane, heptane, a mixture of hexane/isopropanol, or an azeotropic mixture of methanol/chloroform. Only the mixture of methanol/chloroform succeeded in extracting the overall fat content, but this treatment degraded the organic part of the bones. The other organic solvents extracted mainly colored fat, which generally corresponded to a weight loss of 20 to 50%. The majority of fat was extracted during the first bath. Thus the treatment selected is that of immersion in heptane at ambient temperature. The degreasing of whole bones is less effective because of the film of sticky degraded fat on the bone's surface. A pre-cleaning is necessary to eliminate this film. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Added by: Florent Boucher  
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