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Karampelas, S., Fritsch, E., Mevellec, J. Y., Gauthier, J. .-P., Sklavounos, S. & Soldatos, T. (2007) Determination by Raman scattering of the nature of pigments in cultured freshwater pearls from the mollusk Hyriopsis cumingi. J. Raman Spectrosc. 38 217–230. 
Added by: Laurent Cournède (2016-03-10 22:02:31)
Type de référence: Article
DOI: 10.1002/jrs.1626
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 0377-0486
Clé BibTeX: Karampelas2007c
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Catégories: MIOPS
Mots-clés: assignments, beta-carotene, bird plumage, calcareous skeletons, excitation profiles, isomers, pearl, pigments, polyacetylene, polyene chains, polyenic molecules, resonance raman, resonance Raman scattering, spectra
Créateurs: Fritsch, Gauthier, Karampelas, Mevellec, Sklavounos, Soldatos
Collection: J. Raman Spectrosc.
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The nature of pigments in naturally colored pearls is still under discussion. For this study, Raman scattering measurements were obtained for 30 untreated freshwater cultured pearls from the mollusk Hyriopsis cumingi covering their typical range of colors. The originality of this work is that seven different excitation wavelengths (1064 nm, 676.44 nm, 647.14 nm, 514.53 nm, 487.98 nm, 457.94 nm, 363.80 nm) are used for the same samples at the highest possible resolution. All colored pearls show the two major Raman features of polyenic compounds assigned to double carbon-carbon (C=C) - at about 1500 cm(-1) - and single carbon-carbon (C-C) - at about 1130 cm(-1) - bond stretching mode, regardless of their specific hue. These peaks are not detected in the corresponding white pearls, and therefore seem directly related to the major cause of body color. Additionally, the exact position of C=C stretching vibration shows that these compounds are not members of the carotenoid family. Moreover, some changes are observed in intensities, shape and positions of the two main characteristic polyenic peaks from one sample to the next. Similar changes are observed also using several excitation wavelengths for the same point of the same pearl. The exact position of C-C stretching vibration of polyenic molecules depends strongly on the number of double bonds (N) contained in their polyenic chain. Hence, using a constrained decomposition of this band for different excitation wavelengths, up to nine different pigments may be detected in the same pearl. Their general chemical formula is R-(-CH=CH-)(N)-R' with N = 6-14. All our colored samples contained at least four pigments (N = 8-11). Different colors are explained by different mixtures, not by a simple change of pigment. The chemical nature of the chain ends is still unknown, because it cannot be detected with Raman scattering. However, it is possible that these polyenes are complexed with carbonate molecules of the nacre. Similar coloration mechanisms are found in products from other living organisms (e.g. parrots feathers). Moreover, it seems that a similar series of pigments is found in other pearls also, as well as in some marine animals living in similar environments (e.g. corals). Copyright (C) 2006 John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd.
Added by: Laurent Cournède  
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