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Zhang, S., Livi, K. J. T., Gaillot, A.-C., Stone, A. T. & Veblen, D. R. (2010) Determination of manganese valence states in (Mn3+, Mn4+) minerals by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Am. Miner. 95 1741–1746. 
Added by: Laurent Cournède (2016-03-10 21:37:31)
Type de référence: Article
DOI: 10.2138/am.2010.3468
Numéro d'identification (ISBN etc.): 0003-004X
Clé BibTeX: Zhang2010
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Catégories: ID2M
Mots-clés: chemistry, Cryptomelane, edge structures, EELS, ELNES, fe, iron, manganese oxides, oxidation-states, Oxides, ratios, resolution, valence determination
Créateurs: Gaillot, Livi, Stone, Veblen, Zhang
Collection: Am. Miner.
Consultations : 14/518
Indice de consultation : 2%
Indice de popularité : 0.5%
Résumé     
Various manganese valence quantification methods using manganese L-2,L-3 and oxygen K electron energy loss near-edge spectra (ELNES) were applied to determine the relative portions of individual valence state in a mixed (Mn3+, Mn4+) valence system. Multiple linear least-squares (MLLS) fitting of Mn L-2,L-3 ELNES using reference spectra and Gaussian peak fitting of Mn L-3 edge are newly developed and the feasibility of these methods was tested on a set of cryptomelane minerals with different valence states. The selection of appropriate standards is crucial to the success of the MLLS method. The O K-edge structures for manganese oxides can provide valuable guidance in the selection of appropriate reference spectra for quantitative determination of Mn valence state. Gaussian peak fitting, however, failed to determine the Mn valence for (Mn3+, Mn4+) minerals due to the small separation between the primary L-3 peaks from Mn4+ and Mn3+ valence. As to the methods based on calibration curves, the energy difference between Mn L-3 and oxygen K, i.e., Delta E (L-3-O K) vs. valence, is the most valence-sensitive method in the range of Mn3+ and Mn4+ and yields good agreement with the actual values.
Added by: Laurent Cournède  
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